Every year, Acunetix brings you an analysis of the most common web security vulnerabilities and network perimeter vulnerabilities. Our annual Web Application Vulnerability Report (now part of the Invicti AppSec Indicator) is based on real data taken from Acunetix Online. We randomly select websites and web applications scanned using our software, anonymize them, and perform statistical analysis. Here are our cybersecurity findings for this year.

The State of Web Application Security

The 2021 report is, unfortunately, quite pessimistic. The slow improvement trend from the previous few years has reversed. Several high and medium severity vulnerabilities are now more common in 2021 than in 2020, including some serious security risks that may lead to the loss of sensitive information.

We believe that this trend reversal is caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic has caused most companies to embrace remote work and therefore many security leaders decided to focus on endpoint security, operating system security, and anti-malware efforts to combat the onset of phishing, malicious sites, and malicious code. Therefore, not enough resources were available to improve web security. Instead of investing in thorough processes, businesses went for quick and imperfect solutions, often based on misconfigured web application firewalls (WAF).

In our opinion, such decisions could have severe consequences in the future. As a result of the shift to remote, web application importance increased. To improve the efficiency of remote work, many businesses made their processes available through web browsers, using web applications and APIs. This made it possible for attackers to attempt to gain access to company data through web pages and, as a consequence, could lead to major data breaches.

In a recent study from Forrester Research, The State of Application Security 2021, web applications such as SQL injections, cross-site scripting, or remote file inclusion comprised the most frequently-cited method of attack. The study surveyed 480 global security decision-makers with network, data center, app security, or security ops responsibilities who experienced an external attack in 2020.

The Developer Crisis

With the shift to remote, web software development is also facing more problems, not just the lack of resources. Even before the age of remote work, developers often found it difficult to write secure code, made common functionality mistakes, skipped validation, trusted user input from untrusted sources, passed untrusted data directly to SQL queries, used insecure user session IDs and session management mechanisms, etc.

New remote work environments make it even more difficult for developers to maintain application code security due to communication challenges. If the security focus is shifted away from web application security solutions, developers also lack tools and schooling to improve their security-related skills. If they had access to professional web application security solutions, they would receive information not only about the existence of issues but also guides that would teach them how to avoid such errors in the future. Without such tools, developers are just going to create more and more vulnerabilities.

Vulnerabilities at a Glance

Our report focuses on common vulnerabilities and security misconfigurations – those that you also find in the Open Web Application Security Project – OWASP Top 10 list. We found fewer SQL Injection flaws and directory traversal (path traversal) issues but many other serious issues were more common or just as common as the year before. This includes remote code execution (code injection), cross-site scripting (XSS) issues, vulnerable JavaScript libraries, WordPress vulnerabilities, server-side request forgery (SSRF), host header injection attacks, and more.

The report also contains data on other known vulnerabilities and software security issues including buffer overflow, denial-of-service and DDoS vulnerabilities, issues related to access control and broken authentication such as weak passwords, web server misconfigurations, and more. In the case of all these issues, the trend is similar: you can see a slight increase in numbers.

Beware of the Consequences

In conclusion, the 2021 Web Application Vulnerability Report again emphasizes the importance of web vulnerability scanning, especially in the age of COVID-19 and remote work. Issues discovered by scanners such as Acunetix can have serious consequences and lead to server-side sensitive data exposure including user account compromise, credit card information theft, security breaches of back-end databases, as well as client-side attacks on victims’ browsers.

 


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THE AUTHOR
Tomasz Andrzej Nidecki
Technical Content Writer
Tomasz Andrzej Nidecki (also known as tonid) is a Technical Content Writer working for Acunetix. A journalist, translator, and technical writer with 25 years of IT experience, Tomasz has been the Managing Editor of the hakin9 IT Security magazine in its early years and used to run a major technical blog dedicated to email security.